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Terrestrial Focal Ecosystems Components: Search Tool

This tool allows the user to search through the Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) defined in the CBMP Terrestrial Monitoring Plan. The user can filter seacrh results based on FEC, attributes and paramentes and download the search result an excel sheet.

 

Focal Ecosystem Component (FEC)ATTRIBUTEPRIORITYPARAMETERSCALEMETHOD/REFFERENCEPROTOCOL COMPLEXITYTEMPORAL RECURRENCE (MinimumCOMMENTS
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Arthropods - BLOOD-FEEDING: Diptera (e.g., Culicidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae)DiversityEssentialSpecies richness (estimates) localLocalLarvae collections in aquatic habitats, sweep net samples for adults; sweep net samples around ungulatesBasic / Advanced (for taxonomy)Annually at first; 3-5 years afterwardsKnowledge of the entire community is important; invertebrates such as biting flies are important for wildlife and humans, as disease vectors, etc. Community monitoring could be used to collect data on species richness.
Arthropods - BLOOD-FEEDING: Diptera (e.g., Culicidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae)AbundanceRecommendedRelative abundance, terrestrial and aquatic, via sweep sample / in ponds / densitiesLocalExamples: # per unit effort (time, or number of sweeps), density per unit area/volume; baited traps; for aquatic, may need special netsBasic / Advanced (for taxonomy)Annually at first; 3-5 years afterwardsDifficult to get accurate estimates of density, although a relative activity index may be possible. Abundance of these species could act as a driver for large mammals.
Arthropods - BLOOD-FEEDING: Diptera (e.g., Culicidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae)Spatial structureRecommendedSpecies presence/ absenceRegional/ pan-ArcticSame as above & historical collections (i.e., previously collected material)Basic / Advanced (for taxonomy)Annually first; 3-5 years afterwardsUnderstanding range expansions of these species could be important in some locations.
Arthropods - BLOOD-FEEDING: Diptera (e.g., Culicidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae)PhenologyRecommendedDate of first emergence, seasonal activityLocalSame as above, plus TK (local, community)BasicAnnually first; 3-5 years afterwardsImportant but requires full season monitoring which may not be possible
Arthropods - BLOOD-FEEDING: Diptera (e.g., Culicidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Tabanidae)DemographicsRecommendedBody condition, life stage; sexesLocalAnalyses of sample sets; identification of sexes and stagesBasic / Advanced (for taxonomy)Varies by group: As req. (min. 5 years)Perhaps in the future blood samples could be analyzed (DNA barcodes)
Arthropods - POLLINATION: Hymenoptera (e.g. Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae, Apidae), DipteraDiversity EssentialSpecies richness (estimates)LocalFlower visitation observations, sweep nets, passive sampling, i.e., collections in standardized yellow / white / blue pan traps (grids of traps), vane trapsBasic / Advanced (for taxonomy)3-5 yrs as a minimum; annually if possibleBees are important in Arctic systems, and taxonomically well-known but standardized techniques that are quick/efficient are lacking.
Arthropods - POLLINATION: Hymenoptera (e.g. Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae, Apidae), DipteraAbundanceRecommendedRelative number per sweep transect, or flower surveysLocal# visitations per unit time; number of specimens per sweep, net transect, or timed sweep-net surveys Basic / Advanced (for taxonomy)AnnuallyDifficult to standardize ‘relative abundance’ in monitoring program
Arthropods - POLLINATION: Hymenoptera (e.g. Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae, Apidae), DipteraSpatial structureEssentialPresence / AbsenceLocal/ pan-ArcticSame as above, plus other published literature, historical collections and consultation with experts Basic / Advanced (for taxonomy)AnnuallySome pollinator species (e.g. Apidae) could be monitored via community efforts.
Arthropods - POLLINATION: Hymenoptera (e.g. Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae, Apidae), DipteraPhenologyRecommendedSeasonal activity patternsLocalTraditional/ community knowledge AdvancedAnnuallyPotentially important but not feasible without specialist and intense monitoring all season
Arthropods - POLLINATION: Hymenoptera (e.g. Colletidae, Andrenidae, Halictidae, Megachilidae, Apidae), DipteraEcosystem functions and processes: pollination success, fruit-set, and yieldEssentialFruit set and seedsLocalSome focal surveys required; traditional/ community knowledgeBasic and Advanced3-5 years as a minimum; annually if possibleThis process is facilitated by arthropods, but is not a direct measure of pollinator species; this attribute is a driver for plant fitness.
Arthropods - FOOD PREY FOR VERTEBRATES (esp. birds): Araneae, Diptera (e.g., Tipulidae), LepidopteraDiversity RecommendedSpecies richness (estimates) - local levelLocalStandard grids of pan and/or pitfall trapsBasic (some taxonomy required)Annually first; 3-5 years afterwardsSpiders as top predators and as easily sampled taxa should be a priority
Arthropods - FOOD PREY FOR VERTEBRATES (esp. birds): Araneae, Diptera (e.g., Tipulidae), LepidopteraAbundance and productivityEssentialRelative number per trapLocalAs above; can conduct standardized area sampling to achieve density estimates also (labour intensive)Basic / AdvancedAnnually if possible where bird studies are conducted; 3-5 years as minimumPossible if standard protocols can be used. This is a key driver for insectivorous birds.
Arthropods - FOOD PREY FOR VERTEBRATES (esp. birds): Araneae, Diptera (e.g., Tipulidae), LepidopteraSpatial structureRecommendedPresence / AbsenceRegional/ pan-ArcticAs above, but include consultation with experts, historical collectionsBasic / AdvancedAnnually first; 3-5 years afterwardsSee above
Arthropods - FOOD PREY FOR VERTEBRATES (esp. birds): Araneae, Diptera (e.g., Tipulidae), LepidopteraPhenologyEssentialSeasonal activity patternsLocalSame passive sampling approach but done over entire active season, from snowmelt until snow arrival; possible community / local knowledge? )Basic (some taxonomy required)Annually if possible where bird studies are conducted; 3-5 years as minimum,-Potentially important (e.g., for vertebrate feeding), but requires season-long monitoring plan
Arthropods - FOOD PREY FOR VERTEBRATES (esp. birds): Araneae, Diptera (e.g., Tipulidae), LepidopteraHealth and productivityRecommended (wolf spiders)Body condition index, body size index, clutch size (wolf spiders)LocalWolf spiders only: body size index; clutch size of females, parasitism ratesBasic / AdvancedAnnually first; 3-5 years afterwardsSimple to conduct for some taxa, e.g., wolf spiders
Arthropods - DECOMPOSERS and NUTRIENT CYCLING: Soil Mesofauna (Collembola, Acari Enchytraids), Detrivores s.l. (Fungivores,
Bacterivores, Saprophages), macroinvertebrates (e.g., earthworms), microfauna, microorganisms
Diversity EssentialSpecies richness (estimates) - localLocalSoil and turf cores, taken on site, returned to laboratory for extraction (i.e., Berlese funnels or MacFadyen high gradient extractors, O'Connor's funnel for wet extraction)Basic / AdvancedAnnuallySampling can be conducted over a short time should that be all that logistics allow. Collembolans are feasible to include concerning taxonomy. A trait-based (light-weight pseudotaxonomy short-cut) approach may be proposed in the future. Enchytraids and mites are difficult to identify. DNA barcoding will provide a solution to this obstacle and deliver presence/absence data (CBOL program). It is also possible to use higher level taxonomy instead of species to increase feasibility.
Arthropods - DECOMPOSERS and NUTRIENT CYCLING: Soil Mesofauna (Collembola, Acari Enchytraids), Detrivores s.l. (Fungivores,
Bacterivores, Saprophages), macroinvertebrates (e.g., earthworms), microfauna, microorganisms
AbundanceEssentialDensity estimates i.e., number per standard soil coreLocalNumbers calculated per sq. m at a specified depthBasic / AdvancedAnnuallyAbundance data (i.e., density) are collected with the same protocols as used for determining species richness; straight-forward.
Arthropods - DECOMPOSERS and NUTRIENT CYCLING: Soil Mesofauna (Collembola, Acari Enchytraids), Detrivores s.l. (Fungivores,
Bacterivores, Saprophages), macroinvertebrates (e.g., earthworms), microfauna, microorganisms
Spatial structureEssentialPresence/ absenceLocal/ regional/ pan-ArcticAll collembolan life-forms (~4 types, representing the vertical stratification from epi-phytic to true soil-dwelling). The horizontal distribution is not included in environmental surveys, except for variance estimates between samples collected in a random but stratified manner. [Same species and target species/groups. Consult historical collections/ experts]Basic / AdvancedAnnually first; 3-5 years afterwardsFor some taxa, getting presence/ absence is possible and high priority, given high feasibility (i.e. taking soil cores); DNA barcoding will facilitate this in the future
Arthropods - DECOMPOSERS and NUTRIENT CYCLING: Soil Mesofauna (Collembola, Acari Enchytraids), Detrivores s.l. (Fungivores,
Bacterivores, Saprophages), macroinvertebrates (e.g., earthworms), microfauna, microorganisms
Demographics and phenologyRecommendedPhenology, voltinism, population growth rateLocalRepeated samplingBasic / AdvancedMonthly
Arthropods - DECOMPOSERS and NUTRIENT CYCLING: Soil Mesofauna (Collembola, Acari Enchytraids), Detrivores s.l. (Fungivores,
Bacterivores, Saprophages), macroinvertebrates (e.g., earthworms), microfauna, microorganisms
Ecosystem functions and processes: Nutrient levelsRecommendedNPKLocalSampling nitrogen, phosphate, potassium: chemical analysesAdvancedAs requiredThese nutrients are a result of invertebrate activity within the soil/ tundra.
Arthropods - DECOMPOSERS and NUTRIENT CYCLING: Soil Mesofauna (Collembola, Acari Enchytraids), Detrivores s.l. (Fungivores,
Bacterivores, Saprophages), macroinvertebrates (e.g., earthworms), microfauna, microorganisms
Ecosystem functions and processes: DecompositionRecommended% mass lossLocalStandard litter-bags used to assess % mass loss over time as a measure for decomposition rateBasic / AdvancedAs requiredThese nutrients are a result of invertebrate activity within the soil/ tundra.
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)Diversity EssentialSpecies richness (estimates) - localLocalOpportunistic collection of adults and/or standardized sweep samples/systematic surveys of plants for larvae Basic (some taxonomy required)Annually first; 3-5 years afterwards Given the popularity of butterflies, and ease of identification, local estimates of species could be worthwhile
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)AbundanceRecommendedRelative number per sweep transect; visual surveys, number per beat-sheets (density)LocalOpportunistic collection of adults; standardized sweep samples; standardized beat-sheet sample / systematic surveys of plants for larvae AdvancedAnnuallyDifficult to achieve by non-specialist
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)Spatial structureEssentialPresence / AbsenceLocal/ regional/ pan-ArcticSame, but also using expert knowledge, e-databases (e.g., e-butterfly), community/ local knowledgeBasic / AdvancedAnnually first; 3-5 years afterwardsFeasible and important (e.g., range expansions)
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)Ecosystem functions and processes: herbivoryEssentialPlant damageLocal% leaf area lost, index of leaf damage, leaf miner damageBasicAnnuallyThis is an indirect measure of insect feeding, Time consuming; may be difficult to achieve.
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)HealthRecommendedBody size, pupal massLocalWeight of caterpillars, pupal casesBasicAnnually first; 3-5 years afterwards
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)PhenologyRecommendedSeasonal activity patternsLocalTiming of first appearance, local/ TK, season-long samplingBasicAnnuallyRequires season-long monitoring, which is time consuming and difficult, but potentially of high priority to monitor outbreaks
Arthropods - HERBIVORES (Lepidoptera, Symphyta, Aphidae, Hempitera, Coleoptera, Acari)Demographics and temporal cyclesRecommendedPopulation estimates (cycles), larvae/adult dynamicsLocalSee methods above for abundanceBasicAnnuallyMay be high priority if damage is significant
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialPercent cover by life form or speciesLocalPoint intercept/line point interceptBasic2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialCanopy gapLocalLine interceptBasic2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialAlpha DiversityLocalPlot species listBasic2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialAlpha DiversityLocalDNA soil samplingAdvanced2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialAlpha DiversityLocalPlot photographBasic2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialHeight of representative life formsLocalMean of 5 representative plantsBasic2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialBeta/gamma diversityRegional/ pan-ArcticLow resolution remote sensing: MODISBasicAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialBeta/gamma diversityLandscape/ regionalMed resolution remote sensing: LandsatBasic10 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity, composition and abundance EssentialBeta/gamma diversityLandscape High resolution remote sensing (e.g., Quickbird)AdvancedAs required
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity and spatial structureEssentialPattern: fragmentation/ connectivityLandscape/ regionalRemote sensingBasic5 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity and spatial structureEssentialArea: total area by communityLandscape/ regionalRemote sensingBasic5 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
Diversity and spatial structureEssentialDistribution of communitiesLandscape/ regionalRemote sensingBasic5 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
ProductivityEssentialNDVI/ fPAR/ LAI/ EVILandscape/ regionalRemote sensingBasicAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
ProductivityEssentialAboveground BiomassLocalPoint intercept estimation; photo digital photograph classification (non-destructive); clip plots (destructive)Advanced2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
ProductivityEssentialTotal biomassLocalHarvest and root clipping (destructive)Advanced 2 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
ProductivityEssentialBiomassLandscape/ regionalRemote sensingAdvancedAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
ProductivityEssentialBiomassLocalTK: Harvest observations related to food abundanceBasicAs required
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
ProductivityEssentialBiomassLocalTree ring and shrub ring samplesBasic5 years
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
PhenologyEssentialDate of leaf-out (species)Local (plot)Direct observationBasicAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
PhenologyEssentialDate of green-up/ senescence/length of growing seasonRegional/ pan-ArcticRemote sensingAdvancedAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
PhenologyEssentialDate of flowering (species)Local (plot)Direct observationBasicAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
PhenologyEssentialDate of senescence (species)Local (plot)Direct observationBasicAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
PhenologyEssentialAmount of plant reproductive parts and newly emerged vegetative partsLocalDirect observationAdvancedAnnually
All plants (Species, life form groups and associations/ communities). Includes monitoring of
forage species.
PhenologyEssentialDate of senescence (species)LocalTK: Morphological observationAdvancedAnnually
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernAbundanceEssentialPresence/ absence; number of individuals /population sizeLocalDirect count observationsBasic10 year
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernDiversity genetic, neutral:RecommendedGene flow, effective population size, migration rate and directionality, population growth rates, bottlenecks; evolutionary potentialRegionalDNA analysisAdvancedAs required
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernAbundance RecommendedHow many populations, locations (meta-populations)LandscapeDirect observationBasic As required
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernAbundance RecommendedAbundance of individuals within a populations over timeLocalDirect observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernHealthRecommendedPresence/ absence of population with condition (disease, parasites, insects)LocalDirect observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernHealthRecommended% of population with condition LocalDirect observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernHealthRecommendedCommunity observed changes in plant healthLocalDirect observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernSpatial structureRecommendedPattern: fragmentation/ connectivityLandscape Direct observationBasic5 years
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernSpatial structureRecommendedArea: total area by communityLandscape Direct observationBasic5 years
Vegetation: rare species, species of concernSpatial structureRecommendedDistribution of communitiesLandscape Direct observationBasic5 years
Vegetation: non-native speciesAbundanceEssentialPresence / absenceLocalDirect Count observationsBasicAs required
Vegetation: non-native speciesAbundanceEssentialPopulation sixeLocalDirect Count observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: non-native speciesSpatial StrucutreEssentialExtentLandscapeRemote sensingBasicAs required
Vegetation: food SpeciesProductivity QualityEssentialSpecies MixLocalTK; direct observationBasicAnnually
Vegetation: food SpeciesProductivity QualityEssentialSize distributionLocal (plot)TK; direct observationBasic As required
Vegetation: food SpeciesProductivity QualityRecommendedPalatabilty; secondary compoundsLocalPhyto-chemical analysis (Laboratory analysis)AdvancedAs required
Vegetation: food SpeciesProductivityRecommendedBerry abundance, wight and ripenessLocalBerry collection drying and observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: food SpeciesPhenologyEssentialDate of leaf outLocal (plot)Direct observationBasicAnnually
Vegetation: food SpeciesPhenologyEssentialDate of floweringLocal (plot)Direct observationBasicAnnually
Vegetation: food SpeciesPhenologyEssentialDate of senesceneLocal (plot)Direct observationBasicAnnually
Vegetation: food SpeciesHealthRecommendedPresence/absence of species with condition (disease, parasites, insects)LocalDirect observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: food SpeciesHealthRecommended% of pop with conditionLocalDirect observationBasicAs required
Vegetation: food SpeciesHealthRecommendedCommunity observed changes in plant healthLocalDirect observationBasic As required
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, number, habitat selection Local / globalVarious aerial and ground surveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; ptarmigan may be poorly covered by these methods
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, number, habitat selection RegionalNon-breeding censusBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; ptarmigan may be poorly covered by these methods
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, number, habitat selection Regional / GlobalBanding (capture-mark-recapture)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; ptarmigan may be poorly covered by these methods
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, number, habitat selection LocalCitizen science and TKBasic and AdvancedcontinuousMust be included; ptarmigan may be poorly covered by these methods
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsLocal / global Various aerial and ground surveys Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregionalnon-breeding censusBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregional -globalbanding (capture -mark-recaptureBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsLocalCitizen science (TK)Basic and AdvancedcontinuousMust be included
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Demographics, productivity and phenology EssentialPropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival; genetic diversity; breeding behavior; phenologyRegional/globalBanding (Capture-Mark-Recapture)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Demographics, productivity and phenology EssentialPropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival; genetic diversity; breeding behavior; phenologyRegional/globalHunter collected: wing surveys (see Glossary);Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Demographics, productivity and phenology EssentialPropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival; genetic diversity; breeding behavior; phenologyLocalSite-specific studiesBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Demographics, productivity and phenology EssentialPropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival; genetic diversity; breeding behavior; phenologyLocalEgg collectorsBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Diversity and compositionRecommendedDiversity index, habitat selectionSee rows aboveSee rows aboveAdvancedSee rows aboveRelative abundance of all species within defined area. Lower priority but data can be obtained from population abundance parameters.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Diversity, spatial structure and healthRecommendedHeterozygosity and genetic diversity: stable isotope chemistry and trace elementsLocal/globalSample tissues can be collected opportunistically or as part of planned surveys (e.g., carcasses, hunted birds, feathers, eggshells, blood samples, etc.)Basic and AdvancedAs required; minimum every 3 yearsSee Chapters 3 and 4
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)HealthRecommendedPrevalence of pathogens, parasites, contaminants (and trace elements)LocalSpecific projectsAdvancedas requiredUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak)
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)HealthRecommendedPrevalence of pathogens, parasites, contaminants (and trace elements)Regional/globalCitizen scienceAdvancedAnnuallyUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak)
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)HealthRecommendedPrevalence of pathogens, parasites, contaminants (and trace elements)Local/globalOpportunistic or targeted samplings as neededAdvancedas requiredUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak)
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocalSpecific projectsAdvancedas requiredCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateRegional/globalCitizen scienceAdvancedAnnuallyCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocal/globalOpportunistic or targeted samplings as neededAdvancedas requiredCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocalSite specific studiesAdvancedCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocalEgg collectorsAdvancedCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)DiversityRecommendedCommunity structure, diversity index, habitat selectionSee rows aboveSee rows aboveAdvancedAs required annual if possibleRelative abundance of all species within defined area. Low priority but data will be gathered through population abundance parameters.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalSite specific projectsAdvancedas requiredThis could under certain circumstances (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak) quickly elevate to high and may result in legislation.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsregional to globalCitizen scienceAdvancedAnnuallyThis could under certain circumstances (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak) quickly elevate to high and may result in legislation.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantslocal/globalOpportunistic or targeted samplings as neededAdvancedas requiredThis could under certain circumstances (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak) quickly elevate to high and may result in legislation.
Birds, Herbivores (geese, swan, ptarmigan)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocalsite-specific projectsAdvancedas requiredCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, numbers, habitat selectionregional (North America) Arctic PRISM: shorebirdsBasic and AdvancedEvery 15 - 20 years; Must be included; statistically valid.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, numbers, habitat selectionreagional/globalnon breeding surveys: flywayBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; statistically valid.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, numbers, habitat selectionregional (North America)CBC passerines; BBSBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; statistically valid.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, numbers, habitat selectionglobalArctic - breeding Birds Conditions SurveyBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; statistically valid.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, numbers, habitat selectionLocalSingle - species surveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; statistically valid.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size, numbers, habitat selectionLocalLocal knowledge (TK)Basic and AdvancedcontinuousMust be included; statistically valid.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Spatial structure: distributionEssentialLocal density; presence/abscence, habitad selection, migration patternsregional/globalCitizen science (eBird, TK, BBS)Basic and advancedVarious (annual to continuous)Must be included. Data should be gathered through population abundance parameters on a long-term standardized basis.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Spatial structure: distributionEssentialLocal density; presence/abscence, habitad selection, migration patternsLocalResearch stationBasic and advancedVarious (annual to continuous)Must be included. Data should be gathered through population abundance parameters on a long-term standardized basis.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Spatial structure: distributionEssentialLocal density; presence/abscence, habitad selection, migration patternsSee aboveSee row above except CBCBasic and advancedVarious (annual to continuous)Must be included. Data should be gathered through population abundance parameters on a long-term standardized basis.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Spatial structure: distributionEssentialLocal density; presence/abscence, habitad selection, migration patternsregional/globalBanding and tracking studies (refers to migration pattern) Basic and advancedVarious (annual to continuous)Must be included. Data should be gathered through population abundance parameters on a long-term standardized basis.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior, phenologyregional/globalASDN Basic and advancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior, phenologyglobalABBCS;Basic and advancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior, phenologyLocalSpecific projectsBasic and advancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior, phenologyregional/globalCitizen science (incl. TK)Basic and advancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior, phenologyregional/globalNon-breeding ground surveys (CBC, MAPS, juvenile ratios)Basic and advancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is of high priority. Often, it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Diversity and compositionRecommendedCommunity structure, Diversity index, habitat selectionSee rows aboveSee rows aboveAdvancedAs required; annual if possibleRelative abundance of all species within defined area.
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Diversity, spatial structure and health RecommendedHeterozygosity and genetic diversity: stable isotope chemistry and trace elementsLocal/globalSample tissues can be collected opportunistically or has part of planned surveys (e.g. carcasses, hunted birds, feathers, eggshells, blood samples, etc.)Basic and advancedAs required; minimum every 3 years See text: ch. 4 and Ch. 3
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)HealthRecommendedPrevalence of pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalSpecific projectsAdvancedas required Under some circumstances, this may become imperative, requiring policy changes (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak).
Birds, Insectivores (shorebirds, passerines)Health: Body condition RecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateregionalASDNAdvancedAnnuallyCould be considered an aspect of health. However if the bird is in hand low cost monitoring contributing to long-term perspective.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregionalBoat surveys (raptors)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included. Limited harvest in various places in some countries.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregionalAerial surveys (skuas/jaegers, owls, some falcons)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included. Limited harvest in various places in some countries.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregionalGround migration surveys (raptors);Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included. Limited harvest in various places in some countries.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionglobalArctic WOLVES Observatories NetworkBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included. Limited harvest in various places in some countries.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregionalBoat surveys (raptors)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregionalAerial surveys (skuas/jaegers; owls, some falcons)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregionalGround migration surveys (raptors)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsglobalArctic WOLVES Observatories NetworkBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregionalCitizen science (eBird, TK)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Demographics, productivity and phenelogyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior, phenologyglobalArctic WOLVES Observatories NetworkBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Diversity and compositionRecommendedDiversity index, habitat selectionSee rows aboveSee rows aboveAdvancedAs required annual if possibleRelative abundance of all species within defined area. Low priority but data will be gathered through population abundance parameters.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Diversity, spatial structure and healthRecommendedHeterozygosity and genetic diversity; stable isotope chemistry and trace elementsLocal/globalSample tissues can be collected opportunistically or as part of planned surveys (e.g., carcasses, hunted birds, feathers, eggshells, blood samples, etc.)Basic and AdvancedAs required minimum every 3 yearsSee Chapters 3 and 4
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)HealthRecommendedPrevalence of pathogens, parasites, contaminantsregionalCitizen science (Cornell TK)AdvancedAnnuallyUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak). Elevated relevance because of the high trophic level.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)HealthRecommendedPrevalence of pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalSite specific studyAdvancedAnnuallyUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak). Elevated relevance because of the high trophic level.
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Health: Body condition RecommendedBody condition: Diet, fat index, feeding rateregionalCitizen science (Cornell; TK)AdvancedAnnuallyCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Health: Body condition RecommendedBody condition: Diet, fat index, feeding rateLocalSite specific studyAdvancedAnnuallyCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Carnivores (raptors, skuas/jaegers, ravens and owls)Temporal cyclesRecommendedDerived from abundance, health, demographics, productivity and from data on prey species regionalCitizen science (Cornell; TK)Basic and AdvancedAnnually
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionLocal/globalVarious aerial and ground surveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregionalNon-breeding censusBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregional/globalBanding (Capture-Mark-Recapture)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionLocalCitizen science (TK)Basic and AdvancedcontinuousMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsLocal/globalVarious aerial and ground surveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregional;Non-breeding censusBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregional/globalBanding (Capture-Mark-Recapture)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsLocalCitizen science (TK) Basic and AdvancedcontinuousMust be included
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenology1-Regional/globalBanding (Capture-Mark-Recapture)Basic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is a high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenology1-Regional/globalWing surveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is a high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenologyLocalSite specific studiesBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is a high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenologyLocalEgg collectorsBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is a high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)DiversityRecommendedCommunity structure, diversity index, habitat selectionSee rows aboveSee rows aboveAdvancedAs required annual if possibleRelative abundance of all species within defined area. Low priority but data will be gathered through population abundance parameters.
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Diversity, spatial structure and health RecommendedHeterozygosity and genetic diversity, genetic diversity stable isotope chemistry and trace elementsLocal/globalSample tissues can be collected opportunistically or as part of planned surveys (e.g. carcasses, hunted birds, feathers, eggshells, blood samples, etc.)Basic and AdvancedAs required minimum every 3 yearsSee Chapters 3 and 4
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalSite specific projectsAdvancedas requiredThis could under certain circumstances (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak) quickly elevate to high and may result in legislation.
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsregional to globalCitizen scienceAdvancedAnnuallyThis could under certain circumstances (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak) quickly elevate to high and may result in legislation.
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocal/globalOpportunistic or targeted samplings as neededAdvancedas requiredThis could under certain circumstances (i.e.. H5N1 outbreak) quickly elevate to high and may result in legislation.
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocalSite-specific projectsAdvancedas requiredCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateRegional/globalCitizen scienceAdvancedAnnuallyCould be considered an aspect of health
Birds, Omnivores (ducks, cranes)Health: Body conditionRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocal/globalOpportunistic or targeted samplings as neededAdvancedas requiredCould be considered an aspect of health
PiscavoerAbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionLocal/globalVarious aerial and ground surveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; grebes may not be represented in a defined Arctic region.
AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregionalNon-breedingBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; grebes may not be represented in a defined Arctic region.
AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionregionalsurveysBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyMust be included; grebes may not be represented in a defined Arctic region.
AbundanceEssentialPopulation size; numbers, habitat selectionLocalCitizen science (TK) Basic and AdvancedContinuousMust be included; grebes may not be represented in a defined Arctic region.
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsLocal/globalVarious aerial and ground surveysBasic and advancedAnnuallyMust be included
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsregionalNon-breeding surveysBasic and advancedAnnuallyMust be included
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Spatial structureEssentialLocal density; presence/absence, habitat selection, migration patternsLocalCitizen science (TK)Basic and advancedContinuousMust be included
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenologyLocalSite-specific studiesBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenologyLocalEgg collectorsBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Demographics, productivity and phenologyEssentialpropensity; clutch size; brood size; age ratio; nest success; age specific survival, genetic diversity, breeding behavior; phenologyregionalAerial surveys for propensityBasic and AdvancedAnnuallyDemography feeds directly into population size and is high priority. Often it is the only measurable attribute at the flyway scale
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Diversity and composition RecommendedDiversity index, habitat selectionSee rows aboveSee rows aboveAdvancedAs required; annual if possibleRelative abundance of all species within defined area. Lower priority but data can be obtained from population abundance parameters.
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Diversity, spatial structure and healthRecommendedHeterozygosity and genetic diversity; genetic diversity, stable isotope chemistry and trace elementsLocal/globalSample tissues can be collected opportunistically or as part of planned surveys (e.g. carcasses, hunted birds, feathers, eggshells, blood samples, etc.)Basic and AdvancedAs required; minimum every 3 yearsSee Chapters 3 and 4
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)Diversity, spatial structure and healthRecommendedHeterozygosity and genetic diversity; genetic diversity, stable isotope chemistry and trace elementsLocal/globalSample tissues can be collected opportunistically or as part of planned surveys (e.g. carcasses, hunted birds, feathers, eggshells, blood samples, etc.)Basic and AdvancedAs required; minimum every 3 yearsSee Chapters 3 and 5
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalSite-specific studies;AdvancedAnnuallyUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative, requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak). Elevated relevance because of the high trophic level.
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalCitizen science;AdvancedAnnuallyUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative, requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak). Elevated relevance because of the high trophic level.
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)HealthRecommendedPrevalence pathogens, parasites, contaminantsLocalOpportunistic or targeted samplings as neededAdvancedas requiredUnder some circumstances, this may become imperative, requiring policy changes (i.e., H5N1 outbreak). Elevated relevance because of the high trophic level.
Piscivores (loons, merganser abd grebes)HealthRecommendedDiet, fat index, feeding rateLocalSite-specific studies AdvancedAnnuallyCould be considered an aspect of health.
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)Abundance EssentialNumber, densityLocal/ regionalAerial/land-based surveys, cue countsBasic3 years
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)DemographicsEssentialAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocal/ regionalAerial/land-based surveys, telemetry, cue countsBasic3 years
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)DemographicsEssentialAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocal/ regionalAerial/land-based surveys, telemetry, cue countsBasic4 years
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)DemographicsEssentialDistribution of migratory herdsLocal/ regionalTelemetry; aerial/ land-based surveys, harvest records, tissue samples Basic/ advanced3 to 5 yearsMonitoring of seasonal changes in spatial structure may be needed for e.g. migratory species 
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)Spatial structureEssentialDistribution of migratory herdsLocal/ regionalTelemetry; aerial/ land-based surveys, harvest records, tissue samples Basic/ advanced4 to 5 yearsMonitoring of seasonal changes in spatial structure may be needed for e.g. migratory species 
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)Spatial structureEssentialPathogen prevalenceLocal/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysis; bone length; some animal collectionsBasic/ advancedAnnually  Monitoring parasites (e.g., botflies or other groups can be considered where capacity exists)
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)HealthEssentialand intensity,Local/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysis; bone length; some animal collectionsBasic/ advancedAnnually  Monitoring parasites (e.g., botflies or other groups can be considered where capacity exists)
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)HealthEssentialbody condition,Local/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysis; bone length; some animal collectionsBasic/ advancedAnnually  Monitoring parasites (e.g., botflies or other groups can be considered where capacity exists)
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)HealthEssentialcontaminantsLocal/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysis; bone length; some animal collectionsBasic/ advancedAnnually  Monitoring parasites (e.g., botflies or other groups can be considered where capacity exists)
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)Diversity:RecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)geneticRecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)PhenologyEssentialParturition;Local/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually
Mammals, LARGE HERBIVORES (caribou/reindeer, muskox, moose)PhenologyEssentialbreedingLocal/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)AbundanceEssentialNumber, densityLocal/regionalLand based surveys, cue countsBasic Annually
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)DemographicsEssentialAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocal/regionalLand based surveys, harvest records, tissue samplesBasic 3 to 5 years
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)Spatial structureRecommendedTemporal distributionLocal/ regionalLand based surveys, telemetry, cue countsBasic3 to 5 years
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)Spatial structureEssentialPrevalenceLocal/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysisBasic/ advanced 3 to 5 years
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)HealthEssentialPrevalenceLocal/ regional
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)Diversity:RecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)geneticsRecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)PhenologyEssentialParturition;Local/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually
Mammals, Medium sized herbivores (hares)Phenologybreeding
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesPhenologyEssentialNumber, densityLocalLand-based surveys, cue countsBasicAnnually
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesAbundanceEssentialNumber, densityLocalLand-based surveys, cue countsBasicAnnually
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesRecommendedAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocalLand-based surveys, telemetry, cue countsBasic Annually
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesDemographics
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesSpatial structureRecommendedTemporal distributionLocalLive/ snap trappingBasic 3 to 5 years
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesHealthEssentialPrevalenceLocalTissue samplesAdvanced3 to 5 years
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesDiversity:RecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced3 to 5 years
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesgeneticsRecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced4 to 5 years
Mammals, Small herbivores (lemmings, volesPhenologyEssentialParturition; breedingLocal/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)AbundanceEssentialNumber densityRegionalCue count, aerial/land-based surveysBasic3 years
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)DemographicsEssentialAge structure, mortality, fecundityRegionalDNA analysis, den surveillanceAdvanced3 years
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)DemographicsRecommendedTemporal distributionRegionalTelemetryBasic* 3 to 5 years* Methods are not difficult but require specialized technology (can be expensive)
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)Spatial structureRecommendedTemporal distributionRegionalTelemetryBasic* 3 to 5 years* Methods are not difficult but require specialized technology (can be expensive)
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)Spatial structureEssentialPrevalenceLocal/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysisBasic/ advanced3 to 5 years 
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)HealthEssentialPrevalenceLocal/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysisBasic/ advanced4 to 5 years 
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)Diversity: geneticsRecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Predators, Large predators (brown bear, grey wolf)PhenologyEssentialParturition; breedingLocal/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)PhenologyEssentialNumber, densityLocal/ regionalDen surveillanceBasicAnnually
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)AbundanceEssentialNumber, densityLocal/ regionalDen surveillanceBasicAnnually
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)AbundanceRecommendedAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocal/ regionalDen surveillanceBasicAnnually 
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)DemographicsRecommendedAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocal/ regionalDen surveillanceBasicAnnually 
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)DemographicsRecommendedTemporal distributionRegionalTelemetryBasic* 3 to 5 years* Methods are not difficult but require specialized technology (can be expensive)
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)Spatial structureRecommendedTemporal distributionRegionalTelemetryBasic* 3 to 5 years* Methods are not difficult but require specialized technology (can be expensive)
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)HealthEssentialPrevalenceLocal/ regionalHarvest records, tissue samples, fecal analysisBasic/ advanced 3 to 5 years
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)Diversity: geneticsRecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced3 to 5 years
Predators, MEDIUM SIZED-PREDATORS (wolverine, Eurasian lynx, Canada lynx, red fox, Arctic fox)PhenologyEssentialParturition; breedingLocal/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)AbundanceEssentialNumber, densityLocalCue counts, land-based surveysBasicAnnually
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)AbundanceEssentialNumber, densityLocalCue counts, land-based surveysBasicAnnually
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)DemographicsRecommendedAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocalDNA analysis, live trappingBasic/ advancedAnnually 
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)DemographicsRecommendedAge structure, mortality, fecundityLocalDNA analysis, live trappingBasic/ advancedAnnually 
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)Spatial structureRecommendedTemporal distributionLocalTelemetryBasic/ advanced3 to 5 years 
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)Spatial structureRecommendedTemporal distributionLocalTelemetryBasic/ advanced4 to 5 years 
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)HealthEssentialPrevalenceLocalTissue samples, fecal analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)HealthEssentialPrevalenceLocalTissue samples, fecal analysisAdvanced 3 to 5 years
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)Diversity:RecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced3 to 5 years
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)geneticsRecommendedHeterozygosity, population genetics and connectivity, breedingLocalDNA analysisAdvanced4 to 5 years
Predators, Small predators (mustelids)PhenologyEssentialParturition; breedingLocal/ regionalTelemetry; surveysBasicAnnually